Hydrogen Energy and Vehicle Systems (Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)
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Cline, John D. Sakizadeh, Christopher J. Kiely, Steven McIntosh. Green Chemistry , ; 21 15 : DOI: ScienceDaily, 1 August Lehigh University. Promising new solar-powered path to hydrogen fuel production. Retrieved November 19, from www. However, new X-ray spectroscopic analyses show In photocatalytic water splitting, sunlight One of the main obstacles to making hydrogen production a Below are relevant articles that may interest you.
ScienceDaily shares links with scholarly publications in the TrendMD network and earns revenue from third-party advertisers, where indicated. With respect to pre technologies, the catalytic converter and other advances in emission control have reduced hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions by 96 percent and nitrogen oxide emissions by 76 percent.
Nevertheless, the Clean Air Act amendments call for further substantial reductions in emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. The state of California has taken a leading role in this area, adopting even more stringent vehicle emission standards, to be phased in over the s and to result. Research and development on advanced batteries for electric vehicles must focus on improved energy density and battery lifetime.
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The source of pollution is transferred if the electricity for the batteries comes from a fossil-fuel-fired power plant, but the overall pollution is decreased. New technology is needed to meet these regulations. Durable catalysts must be developed that remove more of the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emitted at low temperatures, particularly right after start-up of the vehicle.
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Diagnostics for sensing and controlling the operation of the catalyst must be further developed. The new regulations also mandate the use of reformulated gasoline, requiring a better understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and engine exhaust composition. Concerns over air pollution are directing increasing interest to vehicles that use such alternate fuels as methanol or compressed natural gas. New emission control devices will be needed to handle their very different exhaust hydrocarbon constituents, including partially oxidized compounds such as aldehydes.
To meet that target, aggressive research is required on low-cost, long-life, high-energy-density batteries. Numerous technologies demand mobile electric power supplied by batteries. Improvements in batteries have enabled the development of new products, many having large markets. Examples include camcorders as well as laptop and notebook computers, complete with bright displays and large-capacity hard disks; long-lived cardiac pacemakers that make frequent surgical replacement unnecessary; cordless power tools that enhance freedom of mobility in the workplace; intelligent, motorized cameras for high-performance photography; blood sugar analyzers no larger than a fountain pen.
A cardiac pacemaker containing reliable batteries that are the product of research by electrochemists and materials scientists. High energy-storage capacity, small size, ability to sustain recharge over many recharge cycles, and long shelf life are all important goals in battery technology.
Additional challenges include the need to make discarded batteries less harmful to the environment and the need to increase safety requirements as the energy density of batteries is increased. A promising alternative for converting fuel to electricity is by way of direct oxidation in a fuel cell.
Hydrogen Energy and Vehicle Systems
Here, in contrast to combustion engines and power plants, the conversion process is electrochemical in nature, and efficiency is not limited by the Carnot-cycle thermodynamics of heat engines. Current research and development have afforded fuel cells that operate with 45 to 60 percent overall energy efficiency compared with approximately 37 percent for fossil-fuel-fired power plants and that offer several additional advantages: they can be recharged simply by filling the fuel tank, there is no need to store an oxidizing agent, and combustible fuels can be used without generating noxious nitrogen oxides.
High-temperature, solid-state fuel cells can use hydrocarbon fuels for the net production of water and carbon dioxide plus a flow of electricity through an external circuit. In addition, their hot exhaust is suitable for the co-production of steam, further boosting their overall thermodynamic efficiency.
Fuel cells typically require methanol or hydrogen as the fuel.
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology
Hydrogen is usually produced chemically, starting with fuels such as methane, propane, and methanol. In a fuel cell system, many cells must be connected in series to produce high voltage. Considerable additional research will be required for the development of more practical and economical fuel cells for terrestrial applications. But if improved catalysts for the. Space Shuttle kilowatt fuel cell, used for the catalytic conversion of chemical energy to electricity. Nuclear fission, which produces energy as a by-product of neutron-induced cleavage of uranium nuclei, accounts for approximately one fifth of the electricity generated in the United States, substantially less than in other industrialized countries.
France, for example, derives about three quarters of its electrical power from nuclear energy. Highly publicized accidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have raised public apprehension about nuclear power, however. If the United States continues with a commitment to water-cooled reactors using enriched fuels, it will eventually become necessary to build new uranium enrichment facilities. Whether these enrichment facilities are the current gaseous diffusion type or use more environmentally friendly alternatives depends on advances in research associated with isotope separation.
Laser chemistry may find applications in isotope separation, not only for nuclear fuels, but also for the low-cost separation of stable isotopes for medical and research purposes. Breeder reactors, in which the nonfissioning but more abundant isotope of uranium is converted to fissionable reactor fuel, remain under development.
This technology requires reprocessing of the nuclear fuel because the buildup of fission products decreases the efficiency of the nuclear reaction. A proposed new type of reactor would employ molten-salt electrochemical processing of metal fuel rather than aqueous reprocessing of metal oxide fuel; successful implementation would require continued chemically related research and development in fields ranging from chemical metallurgy and electrochemical engineering to waste processing.
Nuclear fusion, the source of the sun's energy, is a potentially inexhaustible energy resource because the raw materials—the hydrogen atoms of water—are in abundant supply. Moreover, this means of energy production would not produce large quantities of radioactive waste.
The major goal at present is proof of the principle, and practical power generation remains on the far horizon. Current research is focused on fusion of two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium. Deuterium can be separated from seawater, and tritium, which is radioactive, could be generated from neutron bombardment of lithium in a fusion reactor. Chemists and chemical engineers are heavily involved in nuclear power-related research ranging from tritium generation to high-temperature heat transfer.
Solar energy is ubiquitous, free, and continuously replenished. In principle, it can be converted to electricity or a fuel such as hydrogen by processes that have no adverse environmental impact. The use of photovoltaic devices to convert solar energy directly to electricity, due to its high cost, is currently limited to specialty niche applications. Large-scale plants for photoelectric power or fuel production require a large collection area and reliable sunshine.
With currently available solar cells that are about 12 percent efficient in converting sunlight into electricity, approximately square feet of them are needed to generate 1 kilowatt at noon on a sunny day; the construction costs for a 1,megawatt power station, which would require nearly 4 square miles of solar cells, would be prohibitive in today's economy. However, power companies are exploring the use of smaller photovoltaic arrays as auxiliary power sources for peak periods of demand.
Specialized applications of photovoltaic power generation are also becoming more common as the cost of solar cells decreases and the cost of electricity from conventional sources goes up; solar panels, formerly restricted to spacecraft and other high-technology applications for which higher costs can be tolerated, are becoming increasingly common in such applications as exterior illumination, remote communications facilities, and rural power generation.
This array of solar cells, a ground-mounted, single-axis tracking system, illustrates the large area of photovoltaic material needed to generate significant amounts of elect ricity.
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It is likely that research and development aimed at efficient and reliable solar photovoltaic systems will continue to be driven by the demands of space exploration. In the Vanguard 1 satellite was powered in part by silicon cells with 5 percent efficiency. The membrane, which we have taken directly from nature, is essential for pairing the two photosystems.
According to Utschig, the Z-scheme—the technical name for the light-triggered electron transport chain of natural photosynthesis that occurs in the thylakoid membrane—and the synthetic catalyst come together quite elegantly. One additional improvement involved the substitution of cobalt or nickel-containing catalysts for the expensive platinum catalyst that had been used in the earlier study. The new cobalt or nickel catalysts could significantly reduce potential costs. The next step for the research, according to Utschig, involves incorporating the membrane-bound Z-scheme into a living system.
Once we have an in vivo system—one in which the process is happening in a living organism—we will really be able to see the rubber hitting the road in terms of hydrogen production. Lisa M.
The Hydrogen Economy | SpringerLink
Utschig, Sarah R. Soltau, Karen L. Mulfort, Jens Niklas and Oleg G. So if I'm not mistaken, they're trying to engineer a hydrogen-exhaling bug that reproduces more of itself. H2 is abondant and well distributed in water on most of the globe. One day soon we will be smart enough to extract it cleanly and cheaply and use it as a clean source of energy to replace fossil and bio fuels for our industries, homes and vehicles.
Light driven works a few hours per day. Hard to pay back capital investment a few hours per day. All were still in operation during my last visit. A single design for all sites and factory cabling reduced initial cost to a minimum. I doubt that other sources of e-energy except Wind could compete. Posted by:. The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image.