Parents and Children in the Inner City

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Other limitations include, as with any use of the Likert scale, the possibility of a lack of internal consistency between each level of response. Also, this study relied solely on self-reported information. No other method was used to corroborate or verify responses.

The use of close-ended questions possibly limited the full range of parental responses. We attempted to overcome this limitation by inviting parents to write comments. However, the response was limited. The inability to validate responses and the small size of the study limit the degree to which the findings can be generalized to a broader population of inner-city parents.

Although the survey population seemed representative of our overall clinic population, larger scale studies are needed to prove generalization to larger populations. Children of lower socioeconomic status face a double jeopardy: they are less likely to use preventive health care opportunities than children of higher socioeconomic status, and they are at risk for more problems related to their poverty. In addition, physicians need to continue to educate parents about those topics that have been shown to positively influence the health and safety of children.

Obstacles to WCC need to continue to be investigated since parents continue to underuse it despite their indication that they believe it is important. Written information may be a method to be used or to supplement the physician encounter, although care must be taken to ensure that it is of a complexity and reading level that will be acceptable and helpful to the parent. We offer special thanks to Shelly Penberthy, RN, and the Medical College of Wisconsin pediatric residents and medical students for their help and cooperation with administration of the surveys.

Well-child care visits provide an opportunity to identify problems and provide intervention for children. Children living in poverty are known to be at greater risk for medical and psychosocial problems than their wealthier counterparts. However, limited information is available regarding how parents of impoverished children perceive WCC and what they expect from it.

This study revealed that parents of inner-city children consider WCC important, and they prefer a written format for learning about topics pertinent to their child's health. Parents of school-aged children in particular are interested in learning about how to protect their children from violence, how to keep them safe outside the home, and how to help them do well in school. Identifying what parents perceive as important aids in identifying the needs of children and providing intervention. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.

One day in the life of an inner-city school-based Child and Youth Care Worker

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Black Parents are to Blame

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Meurer, MD. Participants and methods. View Large Download. Characteristics of Surveyed Parents and Their Children. Perceptions of wcc. Format of information.

Why Parent Involvement in School is Desirable

Parental comments. Pediatr Clin North Am.

Parent voices are critical to transforming our schools and neighborhoods.

Childhood injury prevention counseling in primary care settings: a critical review of the literature [review]. N Engl J Med. Determinants of children's health care use: an investigation of psychosocial factors. Med Care. Are immunizations an incentive for well-child visits?


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Clin Pediatr Phila. Contemp Pediatr. Parent comprehension of polio vaccine information pamphlets. See More About Pediatrics. At nearly 30 years old, almost half the sample found themselves at the same socio-economic status as their parents. The poor stayed poor; those better off remained better off. And of those who started out well off, only 19 dropped to the low-income bracket, a fourth of the number expected. Almost none of the children from low-income families made it through college.

Of the children from low-income families, only 4 percent had a college degree at age 28, compared to 45 percent of the children from higher-income backgrounds. Among those who did not attend college, white men from low-income backgrounds found the best-paying jobs. At age 28, 45 percent of them were working in construction trades and industrial crafts, compared with 15 percent of black men from similar backgrounds and virtually no women. In those trades, whites earned, on average, more than twice what blacks made.

Their situations vary, but in all categories the numbers of these new orphans are increasing. Some are true zero-parent children, living permanently with relatives, in foster homes or in institutions because their parents are dead, incarcerated or have disappeared. Many more are youngsters who are shuttled from pillar to post, farmed out to a shifting cast of relatives while a drug-abusing or vagabond parent is unable or unwilling to care for them. According to the Federal Bureau of the Census, 2. And the numbers are far worse among black children: In , The census data on these children is not yet available.

Measuring the Problem. But some demographers are looking for a more inclusive description for the messy way that families fall apart, a better statistical measure for this new social problem. Casey Foundation and the Center for the Study of Social Policy, nearly 1 of every 10 American children lived in a household headed by someone other than a parent in , up from 6.

A mother is sometimes present in these homes, but she is often a drug addict or a teen-ager who comes and goes while someone else cares for her children.

Inner-city Child Predators

At a recent conference at the American Enterprise Institute these households were described as "family radicals," using the scientific jargon for unbalanced atoms. At Frick Junior High and similar schools in inner-city neighborhoods, the statistics are even more extreme. At least two-thirds of the school's pupils are new orphans. Forty percent live in county foster homes. At least half that many are living with grandmothers or aunts. Many more live with a drug-abusing mother one week and a weary relative the next. The principal, Murphy Taylor, said virtually all these children are black.

The Hispanic families, he said, almost always remain intact. Taylor, a first-year principal who is black and a longtime foster parent, decided to learn where his students were living after he found that many of them were routinely out of control: fighting with classmates and shoving or cursing teachers. This behavior, he knew, matched what child development experts see in abandoned youngsters.

Scarred by years of abuse and neglect, many of these children are angry and disruptive, even after they settle in loving foster homes or with doting grandmothers. They are distrustful of adults, greedy for attention and convinced that they must be worthless or their parents would not have left them. They are unresponsive to threats that their misbehavior will land them in trouble, because things already seem as bad as they can get.

The person who's supposed to have taken care of them didn't. So they develop an attitude. They get hard.