Samaritan

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Temple repairs at the time of Josiah were financed by money from all "the remnant of Israel" in Samaria, including from Manasseh, Ephraim, and Benjamin. A Midrash Genesis Rabbah Sect. The story that developed includes the following dialogue:.

Rabbi Meir: What tribe are you from? The Samaritan: From Joseph. Rabbi Meir: No!

Samaritan Pentateuch

The Samaritan: From which one then? Rabbi Meir: From Issachar. The Samaritan: How do you figure? These are the Samaritans shamray. He shows that Mesopotamian pottery in Samaritan territory cluster around the lands of Menasheh and that the type of pottery found was produced around BCE. Some date their split with the Jews to the time of Nehemiah , Ezra , and the building of the Second Temple in Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile.

Returning exiles considered the Samaritans to be non-Israelites and, thus, not fit for this religious work. The Encyclopaedia Judaica under "Samaritans" summarizes both past and present views on the Samaritans' origins. It says:. Until the middle of the 20th century it was customary to believe that the Samaritans originated from a mixture of the people living in Samaria and other peoples at the time of the conquest of Samaria by Assyria — BCE.

The biblical account in II Kings 17 had long been the decisive source for the formulation of historical accounts of Samaritan origins. Reconsideration of this passage, however, has led to more attention being paid to the Chronicles of the Samaritans themselves. With the publication of Chronicle II Sefer ha-Yamim , the fullest Samaritan version of their own history became available: the chronicles, and a variety of non-Samaritan materials. According to the former, the Samaritans are the direct descendants of the Joseph tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh, and until the 17th century CE they possessed a high priesthood descending directly from Aaron through Eleazar and Phinehas.

They claim to have continuously occupied their ancient territory and to have been at peace with other Israelite tribes until the time when Eli disrupted the Northern cult by moving from Shechem to Shiloh and attracting some northern Israelites to his new followers there.

For the Samaritans, this was the "schism" par excellence. The laymen also possess their traditional claims. They are all of the tribe of Joseph, except those of the tribe of Benjamin, but this traditional branch of people, which, the Chronicles assert, was established at Gaza in earlier days, seems to have disappeared. There exists an aristocratic feeling amongst the different families in this community, and some are very proud over their pedigree and the great men it had produced.

The Dead Sea scroll 4Q hopes that the northern tribes will return to the land of Joseph. The current dwellers in the north are referred to as fools, an enemy people. However, they are not referred to as foreigners. It goes on to say that the Samaritans mocked Jerusalem and built a temple on a high place to provoke Israel.

The account of the Assyrian kings, which was among the archaeological discoveries in Babylon, differs from the Samaritan account, and confirms much of the Jewish biblical account but may differ in regard to the ethnicity of the foreigners settled in Samaria by the Assyrians. At one point, it is simply said that they were from Arabia, while at another, that they were brought from a number of countries conquered by Sargon II:.

I fought with them and decisively defeated them The Tamudi, Ibadidi, Marsimani and Hayappa, who live in distant Arabia, in the desert, who knew neither overseer nor commander, who never brought tribute to any king--with the help of Ashshur my lord, I defeated them. I deported the rest of them. I counted as spoil 27, people, together with their chariots, and gods, in which they trusted. I formed a unit with of [their] chariots for my royal force.

I settled the rest of them in the midst of Assyria. I brought into it people from countries conquered by my hands. I appointed my eunuch as governor over them. And I counted them as Assyrians.

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The narratives in Genesis about the rivalries among the twelve sons of Jacob are viewed by some as describing tensions between north and south. They were temporarily united in the United Monarchy , but after the death of Solomon, the kingdom split in two, the Kingdom of Israel with its last capital city Samaria and the Kingdom of Judah with its capital Jerusalem.

The Deuteronomistic history , written in Judah, portrayed Israel as a sinful kingdom, divinely punished for its idolatry and iniquity by being destroyed by the Assyrians in BCE. The tensions continued in the postexilic period. The Books of Kings are more inclusive than Ezra—Nehemiah since the ideal is of one Israel with twelve tribes, whereas the Books of Chronicles concentrate on the Kingdom of Judah and ignore the Kingdom of Israel Samaria.

The Samaritans claimed that they were the true Israel who were descendants of the " Ten Lost Tribes " taken into Assyrian captivity. They had their own sacred precinct on Mount Gerizim and claimed that it was the original sanctuary. Moreover, they claimed that their version of the Pentateuch was the original and that the Jews had a falsified text produced by Ezra during the Babylonian exile. Both Jewish and Samaritan religious leaders taught that it was wrong to have any contact with the opposite group, and neither was to enter each other's territories or even to speak to one another.

During the New Testament period, the tensions were exploited by Roman authorities as they likewise had done between rival tribal factions elsewhere, and Josephus reports numerous violent confrontations between Jews and Samaritans throughout the first half of the first century. According to historian Lawrence Schiffman , throughout the Persian Period, Judeans and Samaritans fought periodically with one another.

ionnalee; SAMARITAN

The Samaritans were a blend of all kinds of people—made up of Israelites who were not exiled when the Northern Kingdom was destroyed in BCE—of various different nationalities whom the Assyrians had resettled in the area. According to the Jewish version of events, when the Judean exile ended in BCE and the exiles began returning home from Babylon, Samaritans found their former homeland of the north populated by other people who claimed the land as their own and Jerusalem, their former glorious capital, in ruins.

Samaritan High Priest - Wikipedia

The inhabitants worshiped the Pagan gods , but when the then-sparsely populated areas became infested with dangerous wild beasts, they appealed to the king of Assyria for Israelite priests to instruct them on how to worship the "God of that country. According to Chronicles —23, the Persian emperor, Cyrus the Great reigned — BCE , permitted the return of the exiles to their homeland and ordered the rebuilding of the Temple Zion.

The prophet Isaiah identified Cyrus as "the Lord's Messiah ". During the First Temple, it was possible for foreigners to help the Jewish people in an informal way until tension grew between the Samaritans and Judeans. This meant that foreigners could physically move into Judean land and abide by its laws and religion. Ezra 4 says that the local inhabitants of the land offered to assist with the building of the new Temple during the time of Zerubbabel , but their offer was rejected.

According to Ezra, this rejection precipitated a further interference not only with the rebuilding of the Temple but also with the reconstruction of Jerusalem. There had always been a division between the north and the south and this instance perfectly illustrates that. Following Solomon's death, sectionalism formed and inevitably led to the division of the kingdom.

The text is not clear on this matter, but one possibility is that these "people of the land" were thought of as Samaritans. We do know that Samaritan and Jewish alienation increased and that the Samaritans eventually built their own temple on Mount Gerizim, near Shechem. The rebuilding of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem took several decades.

The project was first led by Sheshbazzar ca. The work was completed in BCE. The term "Kuthim" applied by Jews to the Samaritans had clear pejorative connotations, implying that they were interlopers brought in from Kutha in Mesopotamia and rejecting their claim of descent from the ancient Tribes of Israel. According to many scholars, archaeological excavations at Mount Gerizim indicate that a Samaritan temple was built there in the first half of the 5th century BCE. His policy was to Hellenize his entire kingdom and standardize religious observance.

According to 1 Maccabees he proclaimed himself the incarnation of the Greek god Zeus and mandated death to anyone who refused to worship him. The universal peril led the Samaritans, eager for safety, to repudiate all connection and kinship with the Jews. The request was granted. This was put forth as the final breach between the two groups, being alleged at a much later date in the Christian Bible John , "For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans" [54] —or not "alleged" if the Greek sunchrasthai merely refers to not sharing utensils NABRE.

We therefore beseech thee, our benefactor and saviour, to give order to Apolonius, the governor of this part of the country, and to Nicanor, the procurator of thy affairs, to give us no disturbances, nor to lay to our charge what the Jews are accused for, since we are aliens from their nation and from their customs, but let our temple which at present hath no name at all, be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius. Shortly afterwards, the Greek king sent Gerontes the Athenian to force the Jews of Israel to violate their ancestral customs and live no longer by the laws of God; and to profane the Temple in Jerusalem and dedicate it to Olympian Zeus, and the one on Mount Gerizim to Zeus, Patron of Strangers, as the inhabitants of the latter place had requested.


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During the Hellenistic period , Samaria was largely divided between a Hellenizing faction based in Samaria Sebastaea and a pious faction in Shekhem and surrounding rural areas, led by the High Priest. Samaria was a largely autonomous state nominally dependent on the Seleucid Empire until around BCE, when the Jewish Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus destroyed the Samaritan temple and devastated Samaria.

Only a few stone remnants of it exist today.

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Samaritans appear briefly in the Christian gospels, most notably in the account of the Samaritan woman at the well and the parable of the Good Samaritan. In the latter, it is only the Samaritan who helped the man stripped of clothing, beaten, and left on the road half dead, his Abrahamic covenantal circumcision implicitly evident. The priest and Levite walked past. But the Samaritan helped the naked man regardless of his nakedness itself religiously offensive to the priest and Levite [57] , his self-evident poverty, or to which Hebrew sect he belonged which was unclear to any, due to his nakedness.

A building dated to the second century BCE, the Delos Synagogue , is commonly identified as a Samaritan synagogue, which would make it the oldest known Jewish or Samaritan synagogue. Much of Samaritan liturgy was set by the high priest Baba Rabba in the 4th century. There were some Samaritans in the Sasanian Empire , where they served in the army. This period is considered as something of a golden age for the Samaritan community, the population thought to number up to a million. According to Samaritan sources, Eastern Roman emperor Zeno who ruled — and whom the sources call "Zait the King of Edom" persecuted the Samaritans.

The Emperor went to Neapolis Shechem , gathered the elders and asked them to convert; when they refused, Zeno had many Samaritans killed, and re-built the synagogue as a church. Zeno then took for himself Mount Gerizim , where the Samaritans worshiped God, and built several edifices, among whom a tomb for his recently deceased son, on which he put a cross, so that the Samaritans, worshiping God, would prostrate in front of the tomb.

Later, in , the Samaritans revolted.