Umm el Qaab – Ein prädynastischer Königsfriedhof (German Edition)

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The complex process of establishing a generally accepted repertoire of signs inevitably affected the shapes of the signs themselves Figure 2. The graphic formation of the sign corpus is characterised by a dynamic relation between the creation of the hieroglyphic sign corpus i. The divergence of those processes i.

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In a survey of palaeographic development, I have identified more and less productive periods when simultaneous changes in the forms of different signs occurred Regulski The first evidence for graphic modification can be detected at the beginning of the First Dynasty. As was the case for the number of signs, graphic reform was first and foremost visible in the extension of possible outlines for existing signs Reform 1.

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The first half of the First Dynasty including the reigns of Narmer, Aha, Djer, and Djet contributed to the development of the early writing system by enlarging both the sign corpus as well as updating hieroglyphic style characteristics. The scribe could now choose from a range of variant outlines for already existing signs Stauder In the middle of the First Dynasty, a new development appears; within the corpus of existing outlines, there are many changes in preference Reform 2. From the end of the First Dynasty until the reign of Netjerikhet at the beginning of the Third Dynasty, reform concentrated on the available corpus of existing outlines.

As a side effect, a larger number of outlines were abandoned Reform 3. Graphic reform was radical in the reign of Netjerikhet when an extremely large number of outlines were filtered out. Not a single new outline was introduced during this reign, which is highly significant given the large number of sources available. The standard hieroglyphic form is more or less designated.

As was the case for the establishment of the sign corpus, however, reconsiderations of the outline of a sign never completely ceased, as the Egyptian script is highly dynamic and flexible. Such restructuring of the sign corpus in number and graphically perhaps also encouraged the full development of a handwriting script. For earlier periods, no structural distinction can be made between the hieroglyphic carved or incised onto a range of durable media; and the cursive script written in ink, mostly on pottery and stone vessels.

The use of more perishable objects for writing lacks evidence, but the use of papyrus cannot be ruled out since black papyrus prepared for writing is attested in the First Dynasty Emery , The earliest hieratic writing can be found on the inscribed stone vessels discovered beneath the Step Pyramid at Saqqara Gunn , —; Lacau and Lauer ; Helck , —; Stadelmann , ; Regulski The ink annotations mention individuals, provenances, or destinations and accounts. Features typical of later hieratic such as the addition of diacritic marks are still absent Goedicke , viii.

This development of a handwriting script leads to the use of new media and changing perceptions of writing, which materializes in the Old Kingdom. Graphic standardization passed through the same periodization as the codification of the hieroglyphic sign corpus and the establishment of almost all linguistic features of the Egyptian writing system. A first phase focused on creating and extending the sign corpus and experimenting with a large variety of possible outlines, as well as introducing the morphological and lexical elements, syntactic structures, and phonetic properties typical of later hieroglyphic.

A second wave of standardization starting in the second half of the First Dynasty but intensifying during the Second Dynasty, made the writing system more able to render speech. Increased phonetization was articulated in the reduction of the sign corpus and the abandonment of a large number of logographic signs, changes in the lexicon, and more complex grammatical constructions. The need to adapt the script to encode continuous speech may have been encouraged by significant changes in the linguistic environment of Early Dynastic Egypt, which led to the inception of a national language.

The precise details of underlying processes and possible linguistic explanations for a changing script require much more research. It would be interesting to collate the observations regarding the development of Egyptian writing outlined here with other major changes in the early period, such as the temporary abandonment of the royal necropolis in the south at the start of the Second Dynasty and the final closure of the Umm el-Qaab cemetery in favor of a site overlooking the capital by Netjerikhet.

Further research should also engage more interdisciplinary comparative language perspectives. Allen, J. Middle Egyptian. An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs second edition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Find this resource:. Friedman and P. Fiske, — Leuven, Belgium: Peeters. Andrassy, P. Baines, J. Silverman, 95— Gundlach and Ch. Raedler, — Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag in Kommission. Script Invention as History and Process , edited by S. Houston, — Gledhill, B. Bender, and M. Larsen, — London: Unwin Hyman.

Bard, K. Friedman and B. Adams, — Oxford: Oxbow Books. Boehmer, R. Stockholm: Dept. Branislav, A. Teeter, 25— Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Breand, G. Brewer, D. Ancient Egypt. Foundations of a Civilization. London: Pearson Longman. Breyer, F. Buchez, N. Hendrickx, R. Friedman, K. Cialowicz, and M.

An Archaeology of Art and Writing: Early Egyptian Labels in Context PDF -

Chlodnicki, — Calice, F. Dreyer, G. Umm el-Qaab I. Mainz, Germany: Philip von Zabern. Emery, W. The Tomb of Hemaka Excavations at Saqqara. Cairo: Government Press. Engel, E-M. Amstutz, A. Dorn, M. Ronsdorf, and S. Uljas, 55— Hamburg, Germany: Widmaier Verlag. Budka, F. Kammerzell, and S. Rzepka, — Erman, A. I, Opuscula 13 , edited by A. Erman, — Evans, L.

Fischer, H. Senner, 59— Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Garstang, J.

London: B. Goedicke, H. Old Hieratic Paleography. Baltimore: Halgo. Gunn, B. Fragments of inscribed vessels. Hartung, U. Helck, W. I, BdE Posener-Krieger, — Wiesbaden, Germany: O.

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Hendrickx, S. Spencer, 36— London: BMP. Hornung, R. Krauss, and D. Warburton, 55— Leiden, The Netherlands and Boston: Brill. Hill, J. International Series Oxford: Archaeopress. Preprints Vol. I, edited by H. Hanna, 31— Cairo: Hany Hanna. Houston, S.